Microwave Technology and Remote Sensing


  • Course Code: 1671
  • Semester: 6th
  • Course Type: Scientific Area (SA)
  • Course Category: Optional (OP)
  • Scientific Field: Communications and Networks (CN)
  • Lectures: 4 hours/week
  • ECTS units: 6
  • Teching and exams language: Greek
  • Recommended prerequisite courses: (1501) Wireless Communications
  • Coordinator: Ioannidou Melina
  • Instructors: Ioannidou Melina

Educational goals

The main objective of the course is to introduce the basic principles of microwave technology and remote sensing, to analyze the operation and the basic components of microwave networks and radars and to offer the students the means to deal with pertinent applications and to assess the biological/environmental effects of microwaves. By the successful completion of the course the student should be able to:

  • Describe the operation principles of microwave networks.
  • Summarize the operation principles of remote sensing systems.
  • Perform basic calculations concerning the wave propagation in a waveguide.
  • Apply the radar equation in order to treat pertinent problems.
  • Design simple, passive, microwave components like directional couplers and microstrips.
  • Evaluate the biological/environmental effects of non ionizing radiation.
  • Compare the characteristics (pros and cons) of remote sensing systems and propose the most appropriate model for a specific apllication.
General Skills
  • Search, analysis and synthesis of information by using the appropriate means and technology.
  • Desicion making.
  • Independent and cooperative work.
  • Respect to the natural environment.
  • Criticism and self-criticism ability.
  • Free, creative and inductive thinking.

Course Contents

Microwave frequency spectrum and applications. Frequency bands, operation principles and applications of remote sensing systems. Ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Biological and environmental effects of microwaves. Medical applications of microwaves.

TEM waves, TE waves and TM waves. Waveguides with emphasis to parallel plate and rectangular waveguide (modes, cutoff frequency, phase velocity, group velocity, wave impedance).

S-parameters (scattering matrix) of microwave networks. Passive microwave components. Power dividers and directional couplers. Microwave filters. Design and construction of microstrips.  Microwave resonators. Microwave sources.

Radar equation and calculation of signal-to-noise ratio. Radar cross-section of various targets.

Analysis of the operation of pulse radar, CW radar, FM-CW radar, pulse Doppler radar and imaging radar. Resolution in range and azimuth. Radar receivers and detection of radar signals.

Basic principles in radiometry.

Remote sensing for geoscience applications. Response of  various targets encountered in the environment (soil, precipitation, vegetation, sea) to microwaves. Detection and mapping of the targets’ characteristics. Spaceborne radars and remote sensing systems.

Teaching Methods - Evaluation

Teaching Method
  • Lectures in the classroom.
Use of ICT means
  • Power point presentations.
  • Moodle.
  • Tools for simulation of microwave networks and radars.
  • Electronic communication with students.
Teaching Organization
Activity Semester workload
Individual study and problem solving60
Literature analysis, project preparation and public presentation68
Total 180
Students evaluation

Α. Final written examination (WΕ) (50%)
- Problem solving and calculations.
- Comparative evaluation of various systems/situations relative to microwave technilogy and remote sensing.

Β. Project and public presentation (PR) (50%)
The project is assigned to 1-2 students by the beginnining of the course. by the end of the semester, the student should deliver a text of about 2000 words, based on pertinent scienfic reference. Moreover, they should present their work to the other students (in the classroom) . The presentation may last about 20min and is followed by questions/discussion. All students should attend the presentations.

The final score of the course (WΕ*0,5+ PR*0,5) should be at least five (5). Moreover, WE and PR individual scores should be at least four (4).

The evaluation criteria are listed in the webpage of the course and are explained to the students in the classroom.

Recommended Bibliography

Complementary greek bibliography
  1. (Ελληνικά) R.E. Collin, «Μικροκύματα», Εκδόσεις Α. Τζιόλα & Υοί Α.Ε., 2005 (2η έκδοση), ISBN: 978-960-418-085-1.
  2. M. Skonik, «Εισαγωγή στα συστήματα Radar», Εκδόσεις Α. Τζιόλα & Υοί Α.Ε., 2012 (3η έκδοση), ISBN: 978-960-418-363-0.
  3. Κ. Καρτάλης και Χ. Φείδας, «Αρχές και Εφαρμογές Δορυφορικής Τηλεπισκόπησης», Εκδόσεις Α. Τζιόλα & Υοί Α.Ε., 2012, ISBN: 978-960-418-401-9.
  4. Σκιάνης, Βαϊόπουλος και Νικολακόπουλος, «Τηλεπισκόπηση», Εκδόσεις Μαρία Παρίκου & ΣΙΑ ΕΠΕ, 2012, ISBN: 978-960-508-027-3.
Complementary international bibliography
  1. D.M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, Wiley, 2005 (3rd ed.).
  2. R.E. Collin, Foundations for Microwave Engineering, McGraw-Hill, 1992 (2nd Ed.).
  3. Skolnik M.L., Introduction to Radar Systems, Mc Graw Hill, 1981.
  4. F.T. Ulaby, E. Michielssen and U. Ravaioli, “Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics”, Pearson, 2010 (6th ed.).
  5. C. Elachi and I.V. Zyl, “Introduction to the Physics and Techniques of Remote Sensing”, Wiley, 2007 (2nd ed.).
  6. F.T. Ulaby and D.G. Long, “Microwave Radar and Radiometric Remote Sensing”, University of Michigan Press, 2013.
Scientific journals
  1. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
  2. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
  3. IET Radar, Sonar and Navigation
  4. IET Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation
  5. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters (Wiley)